Title: Phylodynamic analyses of Brazilian antigenic variants of infectious bursal disease virus
Authors: de Fraga AP, Graf T, Coltro VP, Ikuta N, Fonseca ASK, Majó N, Lunge VR.
Journal: Infect Genet Evol.,73:159-166. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.04.020: (2019)


Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a very important pathogen to poultry production and it is classified into three main groups: classical virulent (cvIBDV), very virulent (vvIBDV) and antigenic variants (avIBDV). This last group is composed by five different genetic lineages (recently classified in genogroups G2, G4, G5, G6, and G7) distributed in specific regions around the world. Brazil is one of the biggest poultry producers in the world and the present study aimed to investigate the evolutionary history of avIBDVs of the genogroup G4 in Brazil. A total of 5331 IBDV positive bursa samples, from different Brazilian poultry flocks, were genotyped in a period of ten years (2005 to 2014) and 1888 (35.42%) were identified as local avIBDVs. The highly variable region of the viral protein 2 (hvvp2) gene of 28 avIBDVs was sequenced and used in phylogenetic analyses and evaluation of local amino acid signatures. In addition, all complete and partial IBDV vp2 gene sequences, with local and year of collection information available on GenBank, were retrieved. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on a maximum likelihood method for the classification of genogroups occurring in Brazil. Based on a Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree, all Brazilian avIBDVs grouped into the genogroup 4. Bayesian phylodynamics analysis demonstrated the ancestor virus of this group was probably introduced in South America in 1968 (1960 to 1974, 95% HPD) and in Brazil in 1974 (1968 to 1977, 95% HPD) and the most likely source was East Europe (Hungary or Poland). All Brazilian avIBDV sequences, as well as the other genogroup 4 sequences, showed a specific pattern of amino acid: S222, T272, P289, I290, and F296. This report brings new insights about the IBDV epidemiology in Brazil and South America.