Title: Epidemiological patterns of mental disorders and stigma in a community household survey in urban slum and rural settings in Kenya
Authors: Mutiso VN, Musyimi CW, Tomita A, Loeffen L, Burns JK, Ndetei DM.
Journal: Int J Soc Psychiatry,64(2):120-129. doi: 10.1177/0020764017748180: (2018)


PURPOSE: This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants.

METHODS: A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and rural (Kibwezi) selected health facilities in Kenya. All households within the two sites served by the selected health facilities were included in the study. To select the main respondent in the household, the oldest adult who could speak English, Kiswahili or both (the official languages in Kenya) was selected to participate in the interview. The Opinion about Mental Illness in Chinese Community (OMICC) questionnaire and the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus Version 5 (MINI) tools were administered to the participants. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare prevalence according to gender, while adjusted regression models examined the association between mental illness and views about mental illness, stratified by gender.

RESULTS: The overall prevalence of mental illness was 45%, showing gender differences regarding common types of illness. The opinions about mental illness were similar for men and women, while rural respondents were more positively opinionated than urban participants. Overall, suffering from mental illness was associated with more positive opinions among women and more negative opinions among men.

CONCLUSION: More research is needed into the factors explaining the observed differences in opinion about mental illness between the subgroups, and the impact of mental illness on stigma in Kenya in order to create an evidence-based approach against stigma.