Title: Neurocognitive Impairment Risk Among Individuals With Multiple Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection: Implications for Systematic Linkage to and Retention of Care in Tuberculosis/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment.
Authors: Tomita A, Ramlall S, Naidu T, Mthembu SS, Padayatchi N, Burns JK.
Journal: J Nerv Ment Dis,207(4):307-310 (2019)


Although neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is a well-recognized challenge in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there is little evidence regarding it among individuals with multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) within HIV endemic sub-Saharan Africa. The extent of NCI risk, particularly HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) risk, was investigated in 200 microbiologically confirmed inpatients with MDR-TB at a TB-specialist hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Within this population, the prevalence of HIV coinfection, major depressive episode, and substance use disorder was 89.50%, 10.50%, and 7.00%, respectively. After excluding individuals with major depressive episode/substance use disorder and monoinfection (i.e., MDR-TB without HIV), the prevalence of HAND risk was 43.5%. Older and low-income individuals had significantly greater odds of HAND risk, whereas those with family members/relatives who work(ed) in the health services had lower odds. The role of timely linkage to and retention of care in TB/HIV treatment to offset cognitive decline in MDR-TB/HIV coinfected individuals needs to be investigated further.